Sunday, 4 August 2013

Animal Testing Facts

Animal Testing Facts Biography
Source:- Google.com.pk
Each year in the United States, an estimated 70 million animals are maimed, blinded, scalded, force-fed chemicals, genetically manipulated, and otherwise hurt and killed in the name of science, by private institutions, household product and cosmetics companies, government agencies, educational institutions, and scientific centers. Substances we use everyday, such as eye shadow, soap, furniture polish and oven cleaner, may be tested on rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, cats, and other animals. These tests are mainly used to test the degree of harmfulness of products and their ingredients. No antidoes are ever sought, so animal tests cannot be used to prevent or treat potential human injuries. These tests are not required by the law, and they are only done to protect companies from consumer lawsuits.
Proven more reliable and less expensive than animal tests, alternatives also see more humane. Instead of using live rabbits for the Draize Eye test, corneas from eye banks or sophisticated computer models can be used to accurately test the irritancy level.
A Young boy, Johnny Auquilino, was born without the left ventricle of his heart, the major pumping chamber.  His life was saved by a series of new techniques first developed on animals. Animal research will be involved in the search for a cure for the most deadly diseases. For example, on Oscars night in Hollywood all the stars were wearing red ribbons to show their support for HIV/AIDS research. Actually their views on animal research deter the fight for a cure for AIDS. Americans for Medical Progress has the quote that explains it all. You can't be for AIDS research AND animal rights.
As told by the American Heart Association, the decline in U.S. death rates from cardiovascular disease since the 1960s is the result of lifestyle changes and of new methods of treatment. Many of those treatments are based upon research requiring animals.
Research using animals, however, has been attacked in recent years. Many opponents claim that animals have rights equal to those of humans. Others do not understand the long-term results of such research and how it is conducted. Still others are confused about the difference between using animals for product testing and for biomedical research.
The American Heart Association is specific about how research animals are to be used and treated. When they are needed for Association-funded experiments, the animals must be handled responsibly and humanely. Before being approved for Association support, the researchers must show that:
Even animals that are protected under the AWA can be abused and tortured. And the law doesn’t require the use of valid alternatives to animals, even if they are available.
According to the Humane Society, registration of a single pesticide requires more than 50 experiments and the use of as many as 12, 000 animals.
Several cosmetic tests commonly performed on mice, rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs include:
skin and eye irritation tests where chemicals are rubbed on shaved skin or dripped into the eyes without any pain relief.
repeated force-feeding studies that last weeks or months, to look for signs of general illness or specific health hazards.
widely condemned “lethal dose” tests, where animals are forced to swallow large amounts of a test chemical to determine what dose causes death.

 In tests of potential carcinogens, subjects are given a substance every day for two years. Others tests involve killing pregnant animals and testing their fetuses.
The real life applications for some of the tested substances are as trivial as an “improved” laundry detergent, new eye shadow, or copycat drug to replace a profitable pharmaceutical whose patent expired.
“Alternative” tests are those that achieve one or more of the “three R’s:”
replaces a procedure that uses animals with a procedure that doesn’t use animals
reduces the number of animals used in a procedure
refines a procedure to alleviate or minimize potential animal pain
Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned and abused in U.S. labs every year.
92 percent of experimental drugs that are safe and effective in animals fail in human clinical trials because they are too dangerous or don’t work.
Labs that use mice, rats, birds, reptiles and amphibians are exempted from the minimal protections under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).
Up to 90 percent of animals used in U.S. labs aren’t counted in the official statistics of animals tested.
The shifting of the earth’s plates in the Indian Ocean on Dec. 26, 2004 caused a rupture more than 600 miles long, displacing the seafloor above the rupture by perhaps 10 yards horizontally and several yards vertically. As a result, trillions of tons of rock were moved along hundreds of miles and caused the planet to shudder with the largest magnitude earthquake in 40 years.

1.Smoking was thought non-carcinogenic because smoking-related cancer is difficult to reproduce in lab animals. Many continued to smoke and to die from cancer.
2.Benzene was not withdrawn from use as an industrial chemical despite clinical and epidemological evidence that exposure caused leukemia in humans, because manufacturer-supported tests failed to reproduce leukemia in mice.[1]

3.Animal experiments on rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, monkeys, and baboons revealed no link between glass fibers and cancer. Not until 1991, due to human studies, did OSHA label it carcinogenic.
4.Though arsenic was a known human carcinogen for decades, scientists still found little evidence in animals to support the conclusion as late as 1977.[6] This was the accepted view until it was produced in lab animals.

5.Many continued to be exposed to asbestos and die because scientists could not reproduce the cancer in lab animals.

6.Pacemakers and heart valves were delayed in development because of physiological differences between animals they were designed on and humans.

7.Animal models of heart disease failed to show that a high cholesterol/high fat diet increases the risk of coronary artery disease. Instead of changing their eating habits to prevent the disease, people continued their lifestyles with a false sense of security.

8.Patients received medications that were harmful and/or ineffective due to animal models of stroke.

9.Animal studies predicted that beta-blockers would not lower blood pressure. This withheld their development. [10][11][12] Even animal experimenters admitted the failure of animal models of hypertension in this regard, but in the meantime, there were thousands more stroke victims.

10.Surgeons thought they had perfected radial keratotomy, surgery performed to enable better vision without glasses, on rabbits, but the procedure blinded the first human patients. The rabbit cornea is able to regenerate on the underside, whereas the human cornea can only regenerate on the surface. Surgery is now performed only on the surface.

11.Combined heart lung transplants were also "perfected" on animals, but the first 3 patients all died within 23 days.[13] Of 28 patients operated on between 1981 and 1985, 8 died peri-operatively, and 10 developed obliterative bronchiolitis, a lung complication that the experimental dogs did not get. Of those 10, 4 died and 3 never breathed again without the aid of a respirator. Obliterative bronchiolitis turned out to be the most important risk of the
operation.[14]

12.Cyclosporin A inhibits organ rejection, and its development was watershed in the success of transplant operations. Had human evidence not overwhelmed unpromising evidence from animals, it would never have been released.[15]

13.Animal experiments failed to predict the kidney toxicity of the general anesthetic methoxyflurane. Many people lost all kidney function.

14.Animal experiments delayed the use of muscle relaxants during general anesthesia.

15.Research on animals failed to reveal bacteria as a cause of ulcers and delayed treating ulcers with antibiotics.

16.More than half of the 198 new medications released between 1976 and 1985 were either withdrawn or relabeled secondary to severe unpredicted side effects.[16] These side effects included complications like lethal dysrhythmias, heart attacks, kidney failure, seizures, respiratory arrest, liver failure, and stroke, among others.

17.Flosint, an arthritis medication, was tested on rats, monkeys and dogs; all tolerated the medication well. In humans, however it caused deaths.

18.Zelmid, an antidepressant, was tested on rats and dogs without incident. It caused severe neurological problems in humans.

19. Nomifensine, another antidepressant, was linked to kidney and liver failure, anemia, and death in humans. Animal testing had given it a clean, side effect-free bill of health.

20. Amrinone, a medication used for heart failure, was tested on numerous animals and was released without trepidation. Humans developed thrombocytopenia, a lack of the type of blood cells that are needed for clotting.

21. Fialuridine, an antiviral medication, caused liver damage in 7 out of 15 people. 5 eventually died and 2 more needed liver transplants.[17] It worked well in woodchucks.[18][19]

22.Clioquinol, an antidiarrheal, passed tests in rats, cats, dogs and rabbits. It was pulled off the shelves all over the world in 1982 after it was found to cause blindness and paralysis in humans.

23. Eraldin, a medication for heart disease, caused 23 deaths despite the fact that no untoward effects could be shown in animals. When introduced, scientists said it noted for the thoroughness of the toxicity studies on animals. It caused blindness and deaths in humans. Afterwards, scientists were unable to reproduce these results in animals.[20]

24. Opren, an arthritis medication, killed 61 people. Over 3500 cases of severe reactions have been documented. Opren had been tested on monkeys and other animals without problems.

25. Zomax, another arthritis drug, killed 14 people and caused many more to suffer.

26. The dose of isoproterenol, a medication used to treat asthma, was worked out in animals. Unfortunately, it was much too toxic for humans. 3500 asthmatics died in Great Britain alone due to overdose. It is still difficult to reproduce these results in animals.
27. Methysergide, a medication used to treat headaches, led to retroperitoneal fibrosis, or severe scarring of the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels in the abdomen.

 Scientists have been unable to reproduce this in animals.
Neuroscientists aim to understand how the brain works and to advance treatments for diseases and disorders of the nervous system. This type of research requires investigating complex functions at all levels of the living nervous system. Because it is impossible to use humans for this work, neuroscientists turn to animals. Acting under regulations put forth by governmental agencies, scientists use animals to discover how diseases and their potential therapies affect the entire body — experimental procedures that are often difficult, if not impossible, to replicate with alternative methods.
 Animal Research Success: Blindness and the Retina

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited disease that causes almost complete blindness in infants. It affects three in 100,000 newborns worldwide. Research on dogs has enabled scientists to develop a potential cure that could someday restore vision to people – and dogs – with LCA.

One of the most common causes of LCA is a mutation in the RPE65 gene, which is also prevalent in a strain of dogs called Briards. The gene codes for an essential protein for vision.

However, the disease does not affect all of the photoreceptors, the light sensing cells, so the eye still has the capacity to detect light. Scientists took advantage of the healthy photoreceptors in Briard dogs and injected a virus carrying copies of the normal RPE65 gene. This virus was chosen because it did not make people or dogs sick.

Instead, the virus allowed the photoreceptors to make RPE65, restoring vision in the dogs. In 2007, scientists at three different institutions initiated Phase I/II clinical trials for people with LCA caused by a mutation in REP65. Preliminary results indicate that the gene therapy restored partial vision to affected people. This ongoing research will no doubt benefit Briard dogs as well.
Animal Research Success: Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is characterized by a pathological desire for drugs at the expense of other activities that persists despite adverse consequences. If continued, drug abuse can alter the structure and chemical makeup of the brain and become a true disorder.

Animal research has helped scientists better understand how repeated drug use changes the brain, resulting in new treatments for addiction. After scientists found a chemical that could block the effects of opioids in guinea pigs, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the medication naloxone to treat opioid dependence. Naltrexone works by preventing opioids from stimulating neurons, thereby preventing the user from feeling the effects of the abused drug. Other medications found through animal research, which could potentially help people avoid drug abuse or help recovered addicts prevent relapse, are in development or undergoing clinical trials.

How do scientists use animals in addiction research? Their first step was to determine   whether other animals (besides humans) could become addicted. In an experiment with rats, scientists found that when the animals were given free access to the same drugs that humans become addicted to, they, too, will seek and take the drug compulsively. Further studies helped scientists understand the regions in the brain that are involved in addiction – initially, the reward pathway, especially the dopamine neurons in the area of the ventral tegmental area which communicates with the nucleus accumbens. This pathway is also activated by natural rewards such as food, water, and sex, but drugs of abuse are able to hijack the system. Further research helped scientists understand how addictive drugs act to overtake the reward system – by mimicking or blocking the function of neurotransmitters.

Research also has shown that drugs of abuse can affect systems concerned with learning and memory. As a result, cues or habits associated with drug use can elicit a craving for the drug in an addict's brain, even long into abstinence. Today, scientists are discovering how changes in the brain lead to the compulsive drug taking that characterizes addiction, and they are beginning to understand why some individuals are more likely to become addicted than others.

All this research depends on animal models. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of adequate animals models for the study of drug addiction issues. In fact, this shortage may be partially to blame for the absence of more useful therapeutics. New treatments for addiction will depend upon the development of new ways to study the disorder.

Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts
Animal Testing Facts

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